The ethanolic extract of a Malagasy species Euphorbia stenoclada (ES) (Euphorbiaceae), traditionally used as a herbal remedy against asthma and acute bronchitis, was tested to evaluate possible anti-proliferative activity on human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC). The ES ethanolic extract totally abolished the interleukin-1 (IL-1) induced proliferation of HASMC (IC50 = 0.73 ± 0.08g/mL).
Current research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer’s, malaria, and pain.
Phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in plants are an essential part of the human diet, and are of considerable interest due to their antioxidant properties. These compounds posses an aromatic ring bearing one or more hydroxyl groups and their structures may range from that of a simple phenolic molecule to that of a complex high-molecular weight polymer.
The persistence of latent HIV-infected cellular reservoirs represents the major hurdle to virus eradication in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, referred to as HAART. HIV-1 reservoirs are long-lived resting CD4+ memory cells containing the virus latently integrated.
The genus Euphorbia is the largest in Saudi Arabia, even though no anatomical study has been done intensively. In this study the epidermis, the stomata and the venation patterns have been investigated. The shape of the epidermal cell in Euphorbia species in Saudi Arabia varies: polygonal, rectangular, undulate or elongated. Moreover, the cell shape relies on the cell location on a leaf, i.e.
A study was carried in two villages of Kamenyanga and Kintinku of Manyoni District, central Tanzania. The overall objective of this study was to understand local communities’ perceptions on climate and variability issues and establish its impacts and adaptation strategies within agricultural sector. Both secondary and primary were used.
Multiple cropping systems provide more harvest security for farmers, allow for crop intensification and furthermore influence ground cover, soil erosion, albedo, soil chemical properties, pest infestation and the carbon sequestration potential. We identify the traditional sequential cropping systems in ten sub-Saharan African countries from a survey dataset of more than 8600 households.
We explore the connections among indigenous climate-related narratives, documented temperature changes, and climate change impact studies from the scientific literature. We then propose a framework for enhancing synthesis of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments.
Emerging recognition of two fundamental errors under-pinning past polices for natural resource issues heralds awareness of the need for a worldwide fundamental change in thinking and in practice of environmental management. The first error has been an implicit assumption that ecosystem responses to human use are linear, predictable and controllable.