Prolonged dry spells or droughts and floods as a result of climate change are a serious problem for smallholder farmers in Malawi, because agriculture is their main livelihood strategy. Food shortages and low income levels due to climate change impacts mean inability of farmers to actively participate in the day to day economic activities.
In Malawi, production from subsistence rain fed agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. In response to the adverse effects of climate change and variability, a National Adaptation Programme of Action is used as framework for implementing adaptation programmes. However, this framework puts limited significance on indigenous knowledge systems (IKS).