USES OF SOME EUPHORBIA SPECIES IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN TURKEY AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES.
The genus Euphorbia is the largest in spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), comprising more than 2000 species. Some species of the genus Euphorbia have been used as medicinal plants for the treatment of skin diseases, migraine, and intestinal parasites and as wart ewes. Due to the rich cultural heritage and relatively rich flora, a wealth of knowledge on traditional and folk medicine has been accumulated in Turkey. Some Euphorbia species have been using to treat skin diseases and wounds in different provinces in Turkey. The used parts of the Euphorbia species include roots, seeds, latex, stem wood, stem barks, leaves, and whole plants. Euphorbias have curative properties due to presence of various chemicals, which are found as secondary metabolites in these plants. Plants in the family Euphorbiaceae are well known for the chemical diversity of their isoprenoid constituents. Diterpenoids are majority of the genus with many different skeletons such as jatrophanes, lathyranes, tiglianes, ingenanes, myrsinanes, etc. In addition, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids and steroids were also obtained. The compounds isolated from genus Euphorbia and extracts perform many different biological activities, including antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatoty, anticancer and antioxidant activities etc