The effect of parking in local accessibility indicators: Application to two different neighborhoods in the city of Lisbon
When analyzing urban accessibility at a neighborhood scale, the pressure of parking is determinant to decide whether using a private car is an option for accessing local facilities or not. This paper intends to analyze the impact of different parking pressure characteristics in the estimation of local accessibility. Short trips to pharmacies, groceries, bakeries and primary schools were analyzed and a comparison of accessibility indicators for walking and car was made, considering four different parking scenarios. The methodology was applied to two different neighborhoods in the city of Lisbon, with significant differences in their urban planning and mobility patterns. The results obtained show that, for a neighborhood with high walking accessibility, only a low parking pressure scenario would have better indicators when compared to the walking mode. The increase in 5 min in the time for the search for a parking place represents a decrease in the accessibility indicators in more than 20% and an elimination of the parking searching time plus a reduction of the distance to destination up to 25 m can increase accessibility up to 47%. However, in areas more car-oriented, parking management can lead to significant reductions in car attractiveness. Only a high or very high pressure parking scenario would be less attractive than the walking mode. The parking policies could lead to a decrease in 80% of the car accessibility. Yet, this kind of measure would not represent a better overall accessibility to the neighborhood, contributing, however to a lower use of the motorized modes.