Concerns regarding the conservation of medicinal plant species are receiving much attention due to overharvesting
and exploitation. Medicinal plant harvesting is a global concern as plants are the source of the majority
of medicines, either traditional or western, in the world. Millions of U.S. dollars of plant material are being
Plants are universally recognised as a vital component of
the world’s biological diversity and an essential resource
for ecosystem functioning – goods and services. Additionally,
plants have great economic and cultural importance.
Plants play a key role in maintaining the planet’s basic
environmental balance, ensuring ecosystem stability, and
Indigenous plant resources provide rural communities with non-timber forest products that provide energy, food, shelter and medicine. Indigenous plant users in the rural communities have developed selective management methods to sustain plant resources.
Pastoralism is not only a livestock-based livelihood strategy but also a way of life with sociocultural norms and values, and indigenous knowledge revolving around livestock. Pastoral systems in Africa are facing demographic, economic, socio-political and climatic pressures which are driving many pastoralists into non-livestock based livelihood strategies.
Conservation Agriculture (CA) is being advocated to enhance soil health and sustain long term crop productivity in the developing world. One of CA’s key principles is the maintenance of soil cover often by retaining a proportion of crop residues on the field as mulch. Yet smallholder crop–livestock systems across Africa and Asia face trade-offs among various options for crop residue use.
The effects of climate change are controversial. This paper reviews the effects of climate change on livestock following the theory of global warming. Although, the effects of global warming will not be adverse everywhere, a relevant increase of drought is expected across the world affecting forage and crop production.