If colonial anthropologists produced knowledge essential to the exercise of colonial power, colonial historians no less denied the existence of African history before colonialism than assumed that the history of Zambia and of the African continent in general, was the history of Western imperial entrepreneurship (see, for examples, Gann 1964; Gann and Duignan 1967; Gelfand 1961).
This study surveys and analyses Zambia"s socio-economic development during the first two decades of its existence as an independent state. The character of the development crisis facing Zambia today can best be understood in historical perspective.
This is an episode highlighting some traditional african cultural and natural resource contributions to science, mathematics and the global economies.
Pan-Africanism and African Governments Claude Ake T HE last decade has seen the proliferation of organizations and institutions which have broadened the scope of social communication between African peoples.* The sophistica- tion of a broad African perspective, which tended to be a mo- nopoly of top-level leadership, is now permeating the lower strata of African society.
THE FUTURE OF THE STATE IN AFRICA CLAUDE AKE The state is a specific modality of class domination, a generic phenomenon in capitalist and socialist formations. The unique feature of the socioeconomic formations in postcolonial Africa is that the state, if we can properly talk of such an existence at all, has very limited autonomy.
The African Context of Human Rights Claude Ake Nobody can accuse Africa of taking human rights seriously. In a world which sees concern for human rights as a mark of civilized sensitivity, this in- difference has given Africa a bad name. It is not unlikely that many consider it symptomatic of the rawness of life which has always been associated with Africa.
The unique case of African democracy CLAUDE AKE Claude Ake considers the unique features of African democracy. He explains why its development must stem from the ordinary people of Africa and from their concept of participation. Africa's long neglected democracy movement is now enjoying unprecedented support at home and abroad.
NG UGI WA THIONG 'O Matigari as myth and history: an interview Ngagr wa Thiong'o is a Kenyan writer. Born in 1938 in Limuru, Kenya, he was educated at Alliance High School, Kenya, Makerere University, Uganda and Leeds University in Britain.
The dissertation will focus on the birth and present state of existence of Lesotho, as a nation state, a state inside another state, looking at how diplomacy is at the centre of all this.